Welding Procedures
A Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) is a formal written document describing welding procedures, which provides direction to the welder or welding operators for making sound and quality production welds as per the code requirements. The purpose of the document is to guide welders to the accepted procedures so that repeatable and trusted welding techniques are used. A WPS is developed for each material alloy and for each welding type used. Specific codes and/or engineering societies are often the driving force behind the development of a company's WPS. A WPS is supported by a Procedure Qualification Record (PQR or WPQR). A PQR is a record of a test weld performed and tested (more rigorously) to ensure that the procedure will produce a good weld. Individual welders are certified with a qualification test documented in a Welder Qualification Test Record (WQTR) that shows they have the understanding and demonstrated ability to work within the specified WPS.

The following are definitions for WPS and PQR found in various codes and standards:

According to the American Welding Society (AWS), a WPS provides in detail the required welding variables for specific application to assure repeatability by properly trained welders. The AWS defines welding PQR as a record of welding variables used to produce an acceptable test weldment and the results of tests conducted on the weldment to qualify a Welding Procedure Specification. For steel construction (civil engineering structures) AWS D1.1 is a widely used standard. It specifies either a pre-qualification option (chapter 3) or a qualification option (chapter 4) for approval of welding processes.[1]

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) similarly defines a WPS as a written document that provides direction to the welder or welding operator for making production welds in accordance with Code requirements.[2] ASME also defines welding PQR as a record of variables recorded during the welding of the test coupon. The record also contains the test results of the tested specimens.

WPS is of two types- Prequalified WPS(pWPS) & qualified WPS.

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